Author Topic: General Tire info & FAQ's  (Read 2733 times)

July 15, 2015, 01:39 PM #0

DonR Offline

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Mike asked me if I could throw something together with general info on tires some FAQ's  and facts about tires.
so after a few hours of checking here is what I've put together,
I will be gathering more info and adding over time.
but for now this is what I have.

brought to you by:
Resident tire guy 6+ years
the references listed below each post
Last Edit: February 08, 2016, 03:31 PM by DonR
[Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

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    Top Tier Imports

    General Tire info & FAQ's
    « on: July 15, 2015, 01:39 PM »

    July 15, 2015, 01:39 PM #1

    DonR Offline

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    Winter Tire FAQ

    Q. Do I need winter tires?

    A. If you live in an area where the temperature is consistently below 45 degrees Fahrenheit [7 degrees Celsius] you do.
    Winter tires are not like All-Season tires. Winter tires have special rubber compounds [much more silica] designed to improve traction, stay softer, handling and braking in all cold weather conditions, not just ice and snow.

    Q. How many winter tires are recommended?

    A. Four.
    Of the hundreds of questions we get every year regarding winter tires this is the most frequently asked. The answer is the same for every vehicle type, whether you drive a compact car or SUV.

    Q. Why are four winter tires recommended?

    A. For traction, control and safety.
    Many people assume that the two drive wheels are most important and the other two tires sort of tag along. This idea was valid twenty or more years ago when snow tires were different only in their tread design. Today's winter tires have different compounds and designs that deliver from 25 to 50 percent more traction in snow and ice, and stay pliable in cold weather allowing for more control on dry roads. Using just two on a vehicle creates a traction mismatch that can have serious handling consequences. Using four winter tires ensures optimum traction and control for all vehicle types. It is always recommended to use four winter tires, it's the cheapest insurance you can buy to protect yourself, your family and others.

    Q. Do I need winter tires to improve traction if my vehicle has Traction Control?

    A. Yes.
    Even though traction control optimizes the traction of your tires in adverse conditions by preventing wheel spin, this specialized system does not create additional tire traction. Traction always depends on the four contact patches created by the tires. The better traction your tires provide, the more effectively the traction control system will help you drive more safely. Cold temperatures will cause all-season compounds to harden, losing pliability and traction. See info below.

    Q. My vehicle has ABS brakes; does that eliminate the need for winter tires?

    A. No.
    An ABS braking system prevents "locking-up" the brakes by "pulsing" them as you apply pressure to the pedal. Remember that the tires on your vehicle supply the traction and help the ABS deliver faster stops. Tires built with better winter traction will improve overall braking performance on ice, snow, and cold roads.

    Q. What If My Car Has Front-Wheel Drive?

    A. Front wheel drive is certainly an advantage...but its advantage can be multiplied by using winter tires designed for the road conditions you'll encounter. Part of a front wheel drive car's acceleration advantage is because it has 60% of its weight over the drive wheels. And while this helps you get started, it does nothing to help you stop. And a front wheel drive car's weight distribution is not the best for handling and cornering. Many of the reasons that encouraged you to select a front wheel drive car are the same reasons that dedicated winter tires will make your winter driving more enjoyable and enhance your car's braking, handling and cornering traits.

    Q. What If My Car Has All-Wheel Drive?

    A. All-wheel drive is certainly an advantage...but its advantage can be multiplied by using winter tires designed for the road conditions you'll encounter. While more tires share the torque of your vehicle, think of the ice and snow performance that winter tires provide. All of the reasons that encouraged you to select an all-wheel drive car are the same reasons that dedicated winter tires will make your winter driving more enjoyable and enhance your car's braking, handling and cornering traits.

    Q. Isn't It Better To Stay Off the Roads If It's Really Bad?

    A. While it's great to have the luxury of staying off the roads when it's snowing, it's even better to have the freedom of movement that winter tires provide. It is difficult to accurately predict winter storms, just ask any weatherman if he's willing to place a bet. How do you know where you will be when one hits...maybe at home...or at work...or out of town visiting relatives for the holidays. And who ever had an emergency that they could schedule around the weather?

    Q. Won't It Help If I Just Drive Slowly and Carefully?

    A. That very question verifies that you recognize the risk you feel when you don't use winter tires. Why not take some of the tension out of your winter driving and provide yourself with a greater margin of control to avoid the unexpected...or dodge an accident. And if you aren't able to keep up with the flow of traffic as you accelerate from a traffic light or up a hill, you pose a risk to yourself and all of the other vehicles around you.

    Q. Aren't Winter Tires Expensive?

    A. Winter tires and wheels may be one of the most economical purchases you can make.
    We have excellent prices on tires, alloy wheels, steel wheels and complete Winter Tire & Wheel Packages. Using winter tires will extend the life of your summer tires. The summer tires won't "wear out" sitting in the garage or basement while the winter tires and wheels are on the vehicle. Using winter wheels will protect Original Equipment or aftermarket alloy wheels from the harsh realities of winter...the salt, slush and grime that attack the alloy.


    Further information:

    Winter Tires are designed to deliver safety and control in snow, ice, and cold weather conditions. Many people think that all-season tires can deliver this same performance, but this is not true. The superior traction that winter tires deliver, as much as a 25 to 50 percent increase over all-season tires, can very well be the margin you need to stop in time or turn to avoid trouble


    Tread Compound

    Winter tires have special tread compounds that use one or more of the following features to deliver improved traction:
    •   "Soft stud" tread fibers that "bite" like metal studs yet are quiet and do not harm the road
    •   Special compounds that retain their flexibility even in the coldest temperatures (A more flexible tread surface equals more traction and control.)
    •   Silica-based, micro pore compounds (or comparable technology) that are used to bite through the water film to increase snow and ice traction



    Meanwhile, all-season tires use very different compounds. These compounds are "averaged" to deliver better wear and good traction in a wide variety of conditions. However, the trade-off is a decrease in traction in conditions below 45 degrees Fahrenheit. This is the point where all-season tire compounds begin to harden and lose traction. These tires must use denser compounds in order to deliver better wear. Micro pore or comparable technology is not suitable for these designs. For the same reason, no soft stud material is built into these tires.

    Tread Design

    Winter tires have tread designs dedicated to improving snow and ice traction. Today's most advanced winter designs deliver this while maintaining a comfortable, quiet highway ride as well as excellent dry traction. Winter tires use the following features in their tread design:
    •   Wider circumferential grooves that enhance winter traction by providing efficient channels to drain water and expel snow
    •   Smaller shoulder grooves that increase snow and ice traction with no sacrifice in dry handling or highway ride
    •   Sophisticated, high-density sipe designs that help cut through water and slush so the tread compound can make better contact with the road
    •   Rounder casing designs that add traction by cutting into the snow's surface

    All-season tires cannot include these features and still deliver the wear and high temperature traction that is required for driving during other times of the year. The following details also make all-season tires less desirable for driving in winter conditions:
    •   Shoulder blocks and groove designs that are "compromised" to meet cornering, wear, and all-season traction requirements
    •   Less aggressive tread design that delivers more highway ride comfort but fails to expel snow as efficiently as winter tires
    •   Less siping than winter tires
    •   Flatter tread designs that enhance dry traction but don't cut into snow effectively

    Ice Grip

    Ice grip requires lots of rubber touching the road, like a racing slick made of winter rubber compound. This slick would have tens of thousands of tiny slits called sipes cut into it. Sipes are not tread blocks but rather just cuts in the tread rubber. The Pirelli Winter Carving tire has more than 120 meters of sipes in just one tire. Sipes are the key component in ice grip. Even the coldest ice releases a film of water when weight is put on it and this film acts as a lubricant between the tire and the ice. Yokohama Tire research has shown as little as 10 one-thousandths of a millimeter can cause micro-hydroplaning on ice. Yokohama further concluded that this condition is most common at temperatures from —6 C to 0 C. It is the job of the sipes to open as they come in contact with the ice to allow the water a hiding place, thus drying the ice for traction.

    Snow Grip

     Snow grip requires as many sharp edges as possible, so the more tread blocks we create, the more grip we get. The edges of the blocks bite into snow & push it aside and crush it until we get to a hard enough compacted layer for grip. If the snow is too soft, the tire compresses it in between the tread blocks. Compression creates water and the wet layer of snow in the tire binds to the snow on the ground and gets traction that way. The ideal winter tire is now soft rubber with lots of tiny, sharp-edged tread blocks covered in sipes. But again, these unsupported bits of rubber will make the car feel as if the tires are made of Jell-O. So we need to reduce the tread block count and the sipe count to something that will drive on pavement without shaking our fillings out and tearing itself apart


    Multicell Ice Compounds

     Now the engineers need to find a balance between sipes and blocks for the ideal winter tire. Enter the Bridgestone Blizzak. It uses air pockets in the tire rubber to do the work of ice sipes. It’s a great concept and the public has responded by buying more than 100 million Blizzaks worldwide since 1988. The concept has been improved many times over the years, air pockets have changed shape, grit bits have been added – but the basic principle is still the same. There are millions of microscopic air bubbles in the top 55 per cent of the tread rubber. These are exposed layer by layer as the rubber wears. The little pockets act as hiding cups for the water layer on the ice. Its only shortcomings: the tread depth cannot be totally filled with these air pockets; and a high-speed rated tire is impossible to build – it would become too squishy. Squish and squirm cause heat as does speed, so Bridgestone has settled for 55 per cent tread depth of air pockets augmented by proprietary grit particles in each. After 55 per cent tread depth, the Blizzak becomes a regular winter tire. Yokohama has solved this last issue in its IG20 Ice Guard tire. It has given its air pockets a hard resin shell, which contains absorptive carbon flakes. These hard little balls are mixed into the tread mix from top to bottom. While intact, they are a stable part of the compound. As tread wears, each new layer of air pockets is exposed and goes to work. The tire is more rigid since only some pockets are open. The carbon flakes wick away moisture. The air pockets allow the remaining water to hide, and the rubber has relatively dry ice to grip. Though seemingly having solved the problem of tread squirm, Yokohama has not made a high-speed version of the Ice Guard tire. Michelin has joined the air pocket line with its X-Ice Xi2. It uses vertical tunnel-like tubes in the tread blocks as a water-escape route


    The Stamp of Approval

    To help you select a winter tire that improves your margin of safety, the RMA designates winter tires that meet the new severe snow standard with a new symbol. This sets them apart from standard M&S (mud and snow) rated all-season designs.

    Remember that four winter tires are recommended to achieve optimum traction and safety.

    Last Edit: July 15, 2015, 01:49 PM by DonR
    [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

    89 240SX- SOLD
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      July 15, 2015, 01:39 PM #2

      DonR Offline

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      All Season Tires

      When most drivers think about "normal" tires, they're thinking about all-season tires. So what makes a tire an all-season tire? And what other seasons of tires are available?
      All-season tires are designed to perform reasonably well in a variety of weather conditions like rain and light snow. The sidewall of an all-season tire will usually have the letters M and S, which stand for mud and snow. An M+S or similar marking indicates that the tire's tread pattern that has grooves designed for mud and light snow.

      How All-Season Tires Work

      The main benefit of an all-season tire comes down to the tread pattern-the grooves and other shapes molded into the tire's tread. The whole reason these grooves are there is to maintain contact with the road when things like rain, mud, and snow start to get in the way.
      It's easier to understand how an all-season tire is designed for all seasons when you see it side-by-side with your other main options: summer tires (also called 3-season tires) and winter tires.


      Summer tires tend to have a
      simple tread pattern designed for rain.


      Winter tires have very aggressive tread patterns for deep snow, slush, and ice.


      All-season tires are good for rainy springs and summers, cool falls, and mild winters.

      Summer and winter tires have other features like rubber compounds designed specially for warm or cold temperatures, but you can't really see these in a picture.


      When All-Season Tires Aren't for All Seasons
      So you have all-season tires and you think you're good to go, whatever Mother Nature throws at you. Reasonable assumption, right? Not quite. There are two situations where your all-season tires just won't be up to the challenges that they'll face on the road.


      Worn Tires


      New tire tread vs worn tire tread The added grip of all-season tires comes from the grooves in the tread pattern, so it makes sense that those grooves can't do their job if they're worn down. The truth is that an all-season tire that's only half worn may have already lost a lot of its snow grip.

      Freezing Temperatures & Ice


      All-season tires are good on mud and light snow. But in addition to snow, winter also brings freezing temperatures. If it doesn't usually get below -7°c where you live, then all-season tires are a good choice. If winter is a little more brutal in your neck of the woods, all-season tires may not be your best option.
      In cold weather, the rubber compounds in an all-season tire start to harden. This makes it harder (no pun intended) for the tire to conform to the road surface and really grip it. If the average winter temperature where you live is below -7°c, you should definitely consider switching to winter tires. They're made with compounds that stay flexible in cold weather. Even on completely dry roads, winter tires could help you stop faster than all-season tires.
      And while all-season tires do have grooves for mud and light snow, they won't have the same ice grip that winter tires do.

      Last Edit: July 15, 2015, 01:54 PM by DonR
      [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

      89 240SX- SOLD
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        July 15, 2015, 01:39 PM #3

        DonR Offline

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        Summer vs  All season

        All-season tires perform well in warm weather, but they may offer less grip than summer tires, sacrificing some steering, braking, and cornering capabilities. This tradeoff is necessary for all-season tires to be able to provide acceptable performance in light winter conditions and provide longer tread life.
        All-season tires are capable of providing traction in winter, but are not the best tire to use in extreme winter driving conditions. Drivers who encounter extreme winter weather may want to consider switching to snow tires in the winter.
        Because all-season tires offer a blend of summer and winter performance, they are often a good option for drivers in moderate climates and driving conditions.

        Key points for All season tires

        1-   Performance in dry and wet conditions
        2-   Moderate tread depths
        3-   Longer tread life
        4-   Acceptable performance in light winter conditions
        5-   Capable of providing traction in winter conditions


        Summer Tires

        Summer tires are ideal for high performance vehicles, and are built for speed and agility. They offer increased responsiveness, cornering, and braking capabilities. This is typically attributed to specialized tread patterns and rubber compounds that allow for improved precision on the road. The tread patterns of summer tires have less grooving and put more rubber in contact with the road. They are design¬ed to provide maximum road-holding grip. The tread compounds of summer tires are designed to remain more flexible, allowing for better traction and grip. Summer tires may have shallower tread depths that allow for more stability when pushed closer to their limits.

        Dimensional characteristics (such as the tire’s width, aspect ratio, and rim diameter), speed capability, and other design features make summer tires more suitable and capable for increased performance in wet and dry conditions on high-performance, sports-oriented vehicles. Surprising to some, summer tires provide better performance in wet driving conditions, thanks to unique tread patterns that help evacuate water and resist hydroplaning.
        When it comes to winter driving, all-season tires may be more suitable than summer tires, given their blend of summer and winter performance capabilities, but we recommend considering making the switch to winter tires to get optimal traction and performance in extreme winter conditions

        Key points for summer tires

        1-   Improved speed & agility
        2-   Increased cornering & braking capabilities
        3-   Less grooving & more lateral traction
        4-   Maximum road holding performance
        5-   Better performance in wet conditions


        Last Edit: July 15, 2015, 01:57 PM by DonR
        [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

        89 240SX- SOLD
        95 GTR- SOLD
        03 RSX-S - SOLD
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        10 Gen Coupe- WREKT

          July 15, 2015, 01:40 PM #4

          DonR Offline

          • Posts: 2,901
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          What is an R-compound Tire?

          The “R” in r-compound stands for race, so an r-compound tire is a tire constructed with a racing compound.  R-compound tires are track tires that feature purposeful tread designs, high grip tread compounds and tuned internal constructions to provide the ultimate in acceleration, cornering and braking traction.
          When forms of auto racing instituted classes which require DOT approved street tires, some race tire manufacturers began to market tires which superficially resembled their high performance street tires, but with the least tread permissible and with very soft, sticky rubber, intended specifically for competition because the soft tread would wear too quickly for street use. These became known, loosely, as R compound tires. With additional years of progress, this class of track tire has in its turn followed its own line of development, to the point where they have little in common with true street tires of the same brand.
          When compared to the “ultimate” or “extreme” performance summer tires offered by all the tire manufacturers, DOT R-compound tires provide significantly more dry traction which results in lap times that are 3-6 seconds quicker when installed on similarly equipped track cars and significantly faster lap times for cars that have been setup to take advantage of the sticker compound of the r-comp track tire.  Typically r-compound DOT tires have tread ratings of 40-80 with the lower ratings indicating a softer and sticker tire which will provide more grip for your track car at your favorite closed course facility.

          """"""""""""""
          DO I NEED AN R-COMPOUND TIRE FOR THE TRACK?
          Tuesday, August 24, 2010 by Chad Hocker
          The answer is "no."

          If you are just getting into track events or autocross, you do not need to have R-compound tires. R-compound tires are very good and will help lap times improve as skill level increases, but I would suggest any of the top tires from the Extreme Performance Summer tire category or the Max Performance Summer tire category as a good option.

          For example, I had the opportunity to get some track time on Michelin Pilot Sport PS2 tires (Max Performance Summer) on a Carrera S at the Porsche Sport Driving School at Barber Motorspors Park in Birmingham, Alabama. Both an amazing facility and an amazing car. 

          The Michelin Pilot Sport PS2 N-spec tires worked very well for me over the course of two days. The temperature both days was up in the upper 90s and track temperature was likely a lot higher. They had a high level of grip even as the track became a little more "greasy" as the day went on, the temperatures went up and the rubber was laid down. We definitely put the cars and tires through their paces as the Porsche driving instructors increased our speeds (which was pretty cool). The Michelin Pilot Sport PS2 is a tire that is very capable on the track and on the street, and it exceeded my expectations. Once you start to add bigger brakes and more power then yes, definitely switch to an R-compound track tire, but until then my pick is the Pilot Sport PS2.
          """""""""""""""""""""


          more to come on the r compound and street legal drag tires.
          Last Edit: July 15, 2015, 02:02 PM by DonR
          [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

          89 240SX- SOLD
          95 GTR- SOLD
          03 RSX-S - SOLD
          08 G6- wrekt
          10 Gen Coupe- WREKT

            July 15, 2015, 01:40 PM #5

            DonR Offline

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            TIRE TREAD PATTERNS

            Also called tire tread designs, tire tread patterns are the arrangement of continuous ribs, independent tread blocks, circumferential and lateral grooves, as well as the thin sipes molded into the tread to fine-tune noise, handling, traction and wear. Tire tread patterns feature different basic designs to help them meet anticipated driving conditions.


            SYMMETRIC TREAD PATTERNS

            A symmetric tread pattern is the most common and features continuous ribs or independent tread blocks across the entire tread face where both inboard and outboard halves feature the same pattern. Tires featuring symmetric tread patterns allow using multiple tire rotation patterns.


            ASYMMETRIC TREAD PATTERNS

            An asymmetric pattern is designed to blend the requirements of dry grip and water dispersal/snow traction where the tread pattern changes across the face of the tire. An asymmetric tread pattern usually incorporates larger tread ribs/blocks on the outboard side to increase cornering stability on dry roads by offering greater contact area. This also helps to reduce tread squirm and heat buildup on the outside shoulder. The inboard side usually features smaller independent tread blocks to aid wet and/or winter traction when driving straight ahead. Tires featuring asymmetric tread patterns allow using multiple tire rotation patterns.


            DIRECTIONAL (UNIDIRECTIONAL) TREAD PATTERNS

            A directional (also called a unidirectional) tread pattern is designed to roll in only one direction. It incorporates lateral grooves on both sides of the tire's centerline that point in the same direction and result in v-shaped tread blocks. These grooves enhance hydroplaning resistance at high speeds by pumping water more efficiently through the tread pattern. Unless they are dismounted and remounted on their wheels to accommodate use on the other side of the vehicle, directional tires are to be used on one side of the vehicle and are intended to be rotated from the front axle to the rear axle. If different tire sizes are used on the front vs. rear axle, the tires become location-specific and prohibit tire rotation unless remounted.


            ASYMMETRIC AND DIRECTIONAL TREAD PATTERNS

            Asymmetric and directional tread patterns have v-shaped tread grooves that are offset compared to the centerline of the tire. Tires featuring asymmetric and directional tread patterns must be treated as directional tires for tire rotation. However, if different tire sizes are used on the front vs. rear axle, they become location-specific and prohibit any tire rotation possibilities.
            Last Edit: July 15, 2015, 02:03 PM by DonR
            [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

            89 240SX- SOLD
            95 GTR- SOLD
            03 RSX-S - SOLD
            08 G6- wrekt
            10 Gen Coupe- WREKT

              July 15, 2015, 01:40 PM #6

              DonR Offline

              • Posts: 2,901
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              some more FAQ:

              Q.  Is there a big difference between Summer Tires and Winter Tires?

              A.  Yes, there are actually extreme differences between not only summer & winter tires but all-season tires as well. Winter tires will have bigger grooves for snow, some actually designed to grab the snow and throw it as traction. Winter tires also have softer compositions then all-season tires.  Summer tires will have enough groove for rain and keep more rubber to the road for dryer conditions.
               
              Q. How much air should I put in my tires?

              A. Each tire manufacturer as well as each car manufacturer will have different suggested tire pressures for each vehicle. Different tire pressures will also affect vehicle ride & performance along with the tire wear. Feel free to stop in to Acme Tire and we will be happy to check your air pressures and measure your tire treads.

              Q. Under inflation vs. Over inflation?

              A. An under inflated tire reduces fuel economy, generates excessive heat, and increases tread wear in the shoulder area. Inflating your tires can improve your fuel economy and extend tire life, but over inflation can not only be dangerous but can cause the tires to wear in the center and decrease tread life. Generally, the maximum inflation pressure for most passenger cars will have tire pressures that range from 32-35 psi.
               
              Q. How often should I check my tire pressure?

              A. It is a good idea to check your tire pressures every few weeks and definitely before any long trips. Tires actually always lose air but at an incredibly slow rate unless there is corrosion around the wheel, leaky valve stems, or of course some type of projectile stuck in the tire. Check and adjust inflation only when tires are cool.

              Q. What should I do if I notice a vibration while driving?

              A. Any form of vibration no matter the cause is an indication that your car needs attention of some kind. Tires should be checked for irregular wear as well as tire balance to help determine the possible cause and correction of the vibration. Uncorrected tire vibration, could lead to excessive tire and suspension wear.

              Q. Can out-of-balance wheels and/or tires cause premature wear on the tread life of my tire?

              A. Absolutely!! An out of balance wheel or tire can rob your tires of thousands of miles of tread life.

              Q. What is the difference between Static and Dynamic Tire Balancing?

              A. Static balancing only checks tire balance up and down while dynamic balancing measures the heavy spots both up and down and inside and out. Dynamically tire balancing is much more comprehensive than static and ALL radial tires should be dynamically balanced.
              Both are done on a wheel balancing machine that spins the wheel and tire assembly at high speeds while the computer diagnoses where the heavy spots.  To balance the tire, weights are used to counteract the heavy spots.

              Q.When should wheel balancing be done?

              A. Tires and wheels should be balanced when new tires are mounted on wheels for the first time and anytime a tire is dismounted from a wheel. Balance should also be checked at the first sign of vibration or as we like to call it, a "shimmy". Tire balancing should also be done whenever there is unusual tread wear as both can be a sign of misalignment or mechanical problems

              Q. How often should I rotate my tires?

              A. Regular tire rotation promotes more uniform wear for all of the tires on a vehicle. Generally most manufacturers recommend every 10,000 to 15,000 KMs between tire rotations but check your car owner's manual for the manufacturer's rotation recommendations.

              Q. How do I know when I need new tires?

              A.  A good indication that you need new tires is if you hydroplane when it rains and/or your car does not get up to speed at the first sign of snow.
              Many tires have tread wear indicator bars molded into the tread. When the tread is worn down to where you can see a solid bar of rubber across the width of the tread, it is time to replace the tire.

              Q. Must I replace my present tires with the same size tires?

              A. Generally you should replace your tires with the same size or approved options as recommended by the auto or tire manufacturer. Of course there are always exceptions and safe ways to install different sized tires that original.

              Q. Is it safe to repair a flat tire?

              A.  Yes and No.  Repairing a flat tire all depends on the nature of the flat. Punctures in the tread up to ¼ inch are most often safe to repair provided the overall tire wear is still in good condition. If the damage is to the sidewall or very close to it, your tire is most likely unsafe to repair and will need to be replaced.

              Q. What are Speed Rated Tires?

              A. Some high performance tires have speed ratings. Speed rated tires will generally have a softer tread to aid in traction and a rigid sidewall that increases the performance characteristics of the tire. The softer the tread, the quicker the tire wears. Technically speaking, speed rated tires are designed to be stable up to and at the rated limit and range from Q being 100 mph all the up to Y being 186 mph.

              Q. If I have a car that I store in the winter, can that hurt my tires?

              A. Yes. If the car is stored through the winter with the tires having direct contact on a cold cement floor, this can cause flat and/or heavy spots in the tires. A good idea is to buy a standard 4 foot, 2” x 10” piece of lumber and chop it into 4 – 1 foot long parts of wood.  Simply store the vehicle with a thin piece of wood underneath the tires.



              Understanding your Sidewall:

              What is a tire speed rating?

              The speed rating tells you the speed the tire can safely maintain over time. A higher speed rating usually means you will have better control and handling at higher speeds — and that the tire can take the extra heat. As a general rule, tires with higher speed ratings also handle better at slower speeds.
              The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) set the ratings scale, shown below. But tire makers test their own tires and assign their own speed ratings. On the sidewall of every tire, you'll find one of these speed rating codes:

              •   M — Up to 81 mph
              •   N — Up to 87 mph
              •   P — Up to 93 mph
              •   Q — Up to 99 mph
              •   R — Up to 106 mph
              •   S — Up to 112 mph
              •   T — Up to 118 mph
              •   H — Up to 130 mph
              •   V — Up to 149 mph
              •   W — Up to 168 mph
              •   Y — Up to 186 mph
              •   Z — (See Below)

              What does 'Up to 99 mph' really mean?

              Tires with a Q speed rating can safely sustain speeds of up to 99 miles per hour. The tire may be able to reach higher speeds, but going faster than 99 mph for any length of time is not safe. The tire is not designed to handle the stresses.

              What is a Z Rating?

              For tires rated above 149 mph, a Z rating may appear in the size designation.

              Safety and Speed Ratings
              •   When you get new tires, choose tires with at least the speed rating your car or truck's manufacturer recommends. It's ok to move up to a higher speed-rated tire, but don't go lower.
              •   The speeds shown are test speeds; they are not recommended speeds. Please obey speed limits.




              What is a tire load rating?

              Are you hauling groceries — or bricks? The Load Rating or Load Index indicates how much weight each tire can safely support.
              Every tire's load rating is stamped into its sidewall, usually after the words "Max Load". Sometimes this will be given in pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg), but it is often given as a rating code — a number between 71 and 110.
              If your tires have this code, you can use the chart below to see how much weight each tire can support. Then multiply the weight by four — or the number of wheels on your car or truck. That's how much your tires can safely carry.



              Along with this comes ply rating  which goes on a alpha-numeric scale.
              A= 2ply
              B=4ply  [more commonly know as a P-metric or standard load]
              C=6ply
              D=8ply
              E=10ply   etc etc.
              Only on 6ply or higher this will show up in the safety info section on your sidewall [how to read a sidewall below]  most times will as  6PR   or LRC   which would simply be 6 ply rating / load range C prospectively.

              On 99.9%  of DOT approved tires the load index and speed rating will be displayed together.
              Example:  P225/60R16 88H

              How to Read a Tire Sidewall

              Trying to make sense of the jumble of numbers and letters on a tire sidewall? We'll explain!
              Each of your tires has useful information molded right into its sidewall. You'll find the tire's brand, size, construction details, maximum load and inflation pressure, as well as traction, treadwear and temperature grades. The trick is knowing where to look. The diagram below will help you make sense of your tire's sidewall:


              Passenger Tires

              The tire sidewall shown above is an example of a popular "P-metric," speed-rated tire. "P" indicates that it's a passenger tire; "215" represents the width of the tire in millimeters; "65" is the height to width ratio; "R" indicates radial construction; "15" is the rim diameter code; and "95H" is the optional service description that consists of the load index (95) and the "H" speed rating. "Temperature A" reflects the temperature grade.
              Some older speed-rated tires may include the speed symbol immediately before the "R" instead of providing a service description. A "B" in place of the "R" would indicate diagonal bias construction. "M+S" with the mountain/snowflake symbol indicates that the tire meets the RMA (Rubber Manufacturers Association) specifications for use in severe snow conditions.
              The maximum load recommendation is shown in kg (kilograms) and in lbs (pounds), and the maximum air pressure is shown in kPa (kilopascals) and PSI (pounds per square inch). Safety Note: These are the maximum air pressure levels, not the recommended pressure for the tire when mounted on rims for your vehicle. The vehicle manufacturer's pressure recommendations (found on a decal on the doorjamb or in the glove compartment) must always be used when inflating your tires.

              The DOT Code and Your Safety
              The "DOT" letters indicate manufacturing compliance with all applicable safety standards established by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Next to the DOT letters is an alpha/numeric serial number, commonly referred to as the DOT Code, with up to 12 digits. This code provides manufacturer detail and the last 5 numbers indicate the week and year that the tire was made. For example, "1501" indicates that the tire was manufactured during the 15th week of year. We encourage you to register your tires so that manufacturers can contact you in the case of a recall.

              •   LT = Stands for light truck application. Example: LT235/85R16
              •   C, D or E = Load range indication for light truck applications
              •   REIN = Reinforced
              •   OWL = Outlined White Letters
              •   RWL = Raised White Letters
              •   ORWL = Outlined Raised White Letters
              •   B, BLK, BW, BSW = Blackwall or Black Sidewall
              •   W, WW, WSE = Whitewall or White Sidewall
              •   XNW = Extra Narrow White Width
              •   XL = Extra Load Capacity



              references thus far:
              http://www.bridgestonetire.com
              http://www.ntbtire.com
              http://www.tirerack.com
              http://www.acmetire.com
              http://www.hoosierdirect.com
              http://www.rightturn.com
              http://www.wheels.ca
              http://www.discounttire.ca
              my own knowledge:  6 Michelin training courses, 3 Bridgestone training courses, 2 Hankook training courses & 6 years working with tires 
              Last Edit: July 15, 2015, 02:22 PM by DonR
              [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

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                July 15, 2015, 02:23 PM #7

                DonR Offline

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                I'll so some more research after the weekend

                lmk if there is any other subjects regarding tires you'd like more details on as well,  this so far covers a lot of the basics.
                Last Edit: July 15, 2015, 02:27 PM by DonR
                [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

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                  July 15, 2015, 02:38 PM #8

                  firelizard Offline

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                  Great thread, great info. Hopefully everybody reads this before tire shopping for the first time.

                    July 15, 2015, 02:40 PM #9

                    Shaun Offline

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                    Stickied + rep'd

                      July 15, 2015, 02:42 PM #10

                      DonR Offline

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                      <3 thanks Shaun.

                      I'll probably add a bunch more early next week, for now I've read so much i'll probably dream about tire info tonight.
                      [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

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                        July 15, 2015, 03:00 PM #11

                        DonR Offline

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                        What's On Your Tire's Sidewall?

                        With a little explanation it's easy to understand what all of the letters and numbers mean on your tire's sidewall. The numbers are indicators of the size, type, and performance of the tire.

                        Tire Type The letter "P" at the beginning of the "Tire Size" tells us the tire is a P-Metric tire, referring to tires made to certain standards within the United States, intended for Passenger vehicles.

                        If a tire size has no letters at the beginning, this indicates a Euro metric tire. P-Metric and Euro-Metric tires may have different load capacities.

                        The letters "LT," either at the beginning or at the end of the tire size indicate the tire was designed for light trucks. Vehicle manufacturers equip some light trucks with "LT" type tires. These tires generally require higher inflation pressures than passenger tires.

                        Consult your owner's manual or tire placard for the recommended tire size and inflation pressure for your vehicle.



                        Tire Width is the width of the tire measured in millimeters from sidewall to sidewall. The first three-digit number in the tire size refers to the tire width. For instance, in a size P215/65 R15 tire, the width is 215 millimeters.


                        Aspect Ratio is the ratio of the height of the tire's cross-section to its width. The two-digit number after the slash mark in a tire size is the aspect ratio. For example, in a size P215/65 R15 tire, the 65 means that the height is equal to 65% of the tire's width. The bigger the aspect ratio, the bigger the tire's sidewall will be.


                        Construction. The letter "R" in a tire size stands for Radial, which means the layers run radially across the tire.  NOT RIM  "D"  for bias ply tires


                        Wheel Diameter is the size of the wheel measured from one end to the other. It tells us the size of the wheel that the tire is intended to fit. A size P215/65 R15 tire is made for a wheel with a 15" diameter.


                        www.justtires.com

                        [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

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                          July 15, 2015, 04:09 PM #12

                          themikewoo Offline

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                          Wow this is above and beyond what I had in mind Don. Thank you for putting this together.

                          Suggestion: how to store winter tires in the summer / summer tires in the winter?

                          How to properly clean your tires? Is tire shine bad?

                          Sent from my HTC One using Tapatalk


                            July 15, 2015, 04:18 PM #13

                            DonR Offline

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                            Originally posted by themikewoo
                            Wow this is above and beyond what I had in mind Don. Thank you for putting this together.

                            Suggestion: how to store winter tires in the summer / summer tires in the winter?

                            How to properly clean your tires? Is tire shine bad?

                            Sent from my HTC One using Tapatalk


                            Thanks for the suggestion, i'll get some info together on that and update
                            [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

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                              July 15, 2015, 04:29 PM #14

                              DonR Offline

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                              Storing Tires

                              Since heat and exposure to the elements are the important factors that influence a tire's aging process, drivers can prolong their tire's life by minimizing their impact. Here are some tips for storing tires that will not be used continuously.

                              •Don't store a vehicle with weight on its tires for extended periods of time. Long-term inactivity is more harmful to tires than weekly drives that flex the tires and help maintain oil dispersion within the rubber compounds.

                              •Keep the tires out of direct sunlight whenever possible. The sun's ultraviolet rays and radiant heat are detrimental to rubber. We have used a pyrometer to measure tires that were simply sitting in direct sunlight on a parked vehicle. Surprisingly those tires' temperatures measured 135° Fahrenheit on their surface.

                              •Before storing, use a tire brush to clean each tire with soap and water to remove brake dust, dirt and grime. If the tires are still mounted on wheels, use a wheel brush to clean the wheels with an approved cleaner as well. Dry with a towel and let any remaining moisture thoroughly evaporate.
                               DO NOT APPLY ANY TIRE DRESSINGS. Tire compounds are formulated to resist ozone cracking or weather checking.
                              (MORE ON TIRE DRESSINGS TO COME)
                              •Place each clean and dry tire in its own large, opaque, airtight plastic bag (such as lawn and garden bags) for storing. Avoid allowing any moisture to remain and remove as much air as practical (some drivers even use a vacuum cleaner to draw out as much as possible). Close the bag tightly and tape it shut. This places the tire in its own personal mini-atmosphere to help reduce oil evaporation.

                              •While Seasonal Tire Totes make it neater to store tires, easier to carry tires and reduce the possibility of depositing brake dust, dirt and grime in the trunk or on the back seat during transportation, Seasonal Tire Totes are not airtight nor designed to prevent exposure to the atmosphere. The recommended solution would be to place each clean tire and wheel into the airtight plastic bag and then cover the sealed bag with a Tire Tote.

                              •If you choose not to store white letter/white stripe tires in plastic bags, it is important they be stored or stacked white-to-white and black-to-black to prevent staining the white rubber. The black rubber used on the tires' white letter/white stripe side is compounded differently then the black rubber used on the opposite side. A layer of non-staining black rubber covers the white rubber on the tire's white side to prevent oils in the tire from migrating into the exposed white rubber and discoloring it; however the black sidewall uses standard rubber. Stacking all tires white sidewall up will allow the oils from each tire's black sidewall to migrate into the white rubber of the tire below it.

                              •Place the tires in a cool, dry location. It is better to store tires in a dry basement or climate-controlled workshop than in a standard garage, storage shed, hot attic or outdoors. While basement and shop surroundings tend to remain cool and dry, conditions found in typical garage, shed, attic and outdoor locations often include a wide range of hot and cold temperatures, as well as seasonal precipitation and humidity.

                              •Keep the tires away from sources of ozone. Electric motors that use contact brushes generate ozone. Keep your tires away from the furnace, sump pump, etc.

                              While tires will age somewhat regardless of what precautions are taken, these procedures will help slow the process compared to taking no precautions at all.

                              www.tirerack.com


                              my own personal opinion:
                              most shops will give you a tire bag for your tires for free- if not garbage bags work just fine, put your tire and wheel in a bag of some form to keep direct uv rays off of them,  try to store them in a place where the sunlight will not directly contact them and preferably a climate controlled space.
                              this will suffice for seasonal storage- long term storage is better if you can follow more of the above listed steps.
                              Last Edit: July 15, 2015, 04:35 PM by DonR
                              [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

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                                July 15, 2015, 04:31 PM #15

                                DonR Offline

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                                Tire Shine & Tire Dressing

                                Is it true that tire shine products are harmful for tires and other surfaces due to their silicone or petroleum contents? What can safely be used to shine tires ?

                                It is a common misconception that silicones and petroleum contents found in car care products are harmful to tires, dashboards, paint, etc... The petroleum contents you are referring to are known as petroleum distillates and they come from the distillation of petroleum crude oil. Thousands of products you are familiar with such as baby oil, Vaseline, and ChapStick are actually petroleum distillates. Tire shine products from established companies such as STP, 3M, and Meguiar's are no more harmful to your tires than ChapStick is to your lips. These companies use a multiple distillation process which removes impurities and toxins. Their final products are safe for human handling and use on your car. While there do exist some petroleum distillates that can be very harmful such as gasoline and paint thinner, one simply cannot label all petroleum distillates as either good or bad.

                                Silicones are used in car care products for many reasons. They make car care products easier to apply, and the lubrication properties of silicone help to reduce swirl marks and scratches when you shine your dashboard or buff your paint. They also improve the spreading and coverage of wax products. Silicones are used to modify or enhance car care products and are not used for any characteristic they offer in and of themselves. Silicone is basically an additive that improves the end product. Sort of like adding milk to your scrambled eggs to make them fluffier. Nearly all modern silicones are water soluble and completely inert. This means they are safe as well.

                                With regard to which products you should use, I personally recommend using Armor All products to shine tires and dashboards. They do an excellent job of protecting tires and dashboards from the damaging rays of the sun and also leave a nice shine. It is the sun's UV rays that cause tires to crack and dashboards to fade. Armor All offers various car care products that superbly protect a car's interior and exterior. You may choose to use another brand but make sure it is from a reputable company. Some lesser known companies use inexpensive ingredients in their car care formulas which may be harmful to your car's surfaces.

                                www.topspeedracer.com
                                [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

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                                  September 21, 2015, 02:43 PM #16

                                  DonR Offline

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                                  IMPORTANT REMINDER FOR THE UPCOMMING SEASON:

                                  Canadian Laws for Studded Tires


                                  Canadian Laws for Studded Tires

                                   

                                  Winter driving conditions are a concern in Canada between the months of October and May; northern areas can have year-round issues. Studded tires can make a big difference while driving on frozen roads covered in ice and snow. Laws concerning the use of studded tires are provincially regulated in Canada; residents and visitors alike must conform to these regulations.







                                  Time Frames

                                  Most provinces restrict studded tire usage to the winter months because they can make ruts and even dislodge chunks of pavement from the road surface. During the winter the asphalt is frozen, making it hard to damage--unlike the summer months, when it is soft and easy to damage.

                                  Alberta, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan and the Yukon have no timeframe restrictions on studded tires. The time frame for New Brunswick is from Oct. 15 to May 1, Newfoundland from Nov. 1 to May 31 and Prince Edward Island from Oct. 1 to May 31; this is their only restriction, however other provinces have additional restrictions.


                                  British Columbia

                                  Studded tires can be used only between Oct. 1 and April 30. The studs can have only up to a 1/8-inch protrusion past the surface of the tire and only 130 studs per tire for vehicles less than 5 tons and 175 studs per tire over 5 tons. When in the mountain regions, vehicles must use snow tires, studded tires or chains from Nov. 1 to April 30.


                                  Manitoba

                                  Studded tires can be used only between Oct. 1 and April 30. The studs must be composed of metal and have a tungsten carbide or a ceramic exposed central core.



                                  Nova Scotia

                                  Studded tires can be used between Oct. 15 and April 30. The studs can only have up to a 1/8-inch protrusion from a pneumatic tire surface and have up to a 1/2-inch diameter, including casing. Only 130 studs per tire for vehicles less than 5 tons and 175 studs per tire over 5 tons and the number of studs must be equal on both sides of the vehicle.


                                  Ontario

                                  Studded tires are permitted between Oct. 1 and April 30 and only north of the Parry Sound and Nipissing districts. Northern Ontario residents can use studded tires anywhere in Ontario during this time frame. It is illegal for southern Ontario residents to use studded tires in southern Ontario; they can be fined up to CA$1,000. The studs must be lightweight Scandinavian studs that can only have a 5/64-inch protrusion past the surface of the tire. To view additional regulations, please visit the Government of Ontario website listed in References.

                                  Visitors can use studded tires anywhere in the province as long as they do not stay longer than 30 days.


                                  Quebec

                                  Studded tires can be used only between Oct. 15 and May 1. There must be a studded tire on both ends of an axle, and if they are on the front axle they must also be on the rear axle.


                                  [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

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                                    February 08, 2016, 03:08 PM #17

                                    DonR Offline

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                                    broken image.

                                    What’s the difference between all-season tires, all-weather tires and winter tires?


                                     sorry the pic is so small... blown up in link below  vvvv

                                    https://www.kaltire.com/all-weather-vs-all-season-vs-winter-tires/  here's kal's marketing of the all weather vs the "all 3 season"

                                    my opinion
                                    VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
                                     which doesn't really matter  :lol:   but something that has been around for a long time--as the all season tire has been, cannot be changed because they've taken a winter tire and given it a hardon so it lasts slightly longer in the summer. 
                                    would I ever buy an "all weather"?-- no  if I could only afford 1 set of tires I'd rather run a decent winter tire all year round, as even their chart shows for mild winters with quick melting snow.... It's Canada, we see some sh^t, some of the worst winters the habited world offers (obviously this isn't for the people who have performance cars)
                                    all weather tires: best suited for places with not much snow & more of a cold rainy season,  Vancouver, Germany etc.
                                    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
                                    Last Edit: February 08, 2016, 03:29 PM by DonR
                                    [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

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                                      April 12, 2016, 07:31 AM #18

                                      themikewoo Offline

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                                      @DonR
                                      Fixed answer for this question? Q. How much air should I put in my tires?

                                      Just curious if you could post up some speedometer conversion charts and height charts for different tires.

                                      I am currently in the market to replace the tires on my daily driver, 195/60/15, and want to know what other tire sizes I can also use. I believe they are;
                                      185/65/15
                                      205/60/15
                                      215/55/15

                                      I believe those three sizes I listed would keep the speedometer fairly accurate but not sure how the height works.

                                        April 12, 2016, 09:48 AM #19

                                        barrett Offline

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                                        Miata.net has a great tire size calculator for comparing different sizes. You generally want to keep the ratio within a 3% difference of the originally tire. Otherwise, like you mentioned, it throws off the speedometer, but it can always wear out the brakes prematurely (say you use a smaller tire than normal, it'll rotate more often to achieve the same speeds, that means the brakes will be pressing for more rotations when slowing down).

                                        For a quick calculation I'd feel comfortable stating for every 10 in width, change 5 in height.

                                        In your case, it's a 195/60/15 - I'd say you'd be ok using 205/55/15
                                        93 Del Sol Si - B18C1, YS1 cable GSR trans, Work Stark II's, Powerslot rotors, Hawk HPS pads, Momo Millenium steering wheel
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                                          April 12, 2016, 04:49 PM #20

                                          DonR Offline

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                                          Originally posted by barrett
                                          Miata.net has a great tire size calculator for comparing different sizes. You generally want to keep the ratio within a 3% difference of the originally tire. Otherwise, like you mentioned, it throws off the speedometer, but it can always wear out the brakes prematurely (say you use a smaller tire than normal, it'll rotate more often to achieve the same speeds, that means the brakes will be pressing for more rotations when slowing down).

                                          For a quick calculation I'd feel comfortable stating for every 10 in width, change 5 in height.

                                          In your case, it's a 195/60/15 - I'd say you'd be ok using 205/55/15
                                          you bet, or in the case of upsizing rim always be weary of your overall diameter

                                          in that case if you had around a 25" tire : 195/65R15 (very common)  to a 205/55R16 or  225/45R17 are all very very close.

                                          also check your door jam, often manufacturers will include a tire size chart on newer vehicles.

                                          Not to mention power loss if you go with an oversized tire, I've witnessed first hand how important tire size is.
                                          A friend of mine upsized from a 205/60R16 to a 225/60R16, after doing so he noticed a significant loss in acceleration
                                          Last Edit: April 12, 2016, 04:51 PM by DonR
                                          [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

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                                            April 12, 2016, 04:49 PM #21

                                            DonR Offline

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                                            here is a tire & wheel calculator I often use

                                            http://www.willtheyfit.com/
                                            Last Edit: April 14, 2016, 10:48 AM by DonR
                                            [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

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                                              April 14, 2016, 10:49 AM #22

                                              DonR Offline

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                                              @themikewoo   sorry I missed your post, the link above does a pretty accurate job of converting the OD's to give you the speedo +/- when changing tire size.


                                              to calculate OD on a tire:

                                              example:

                                              195/65R15

                                              195 is section width
                                              65 is aspect ratio
                                              R is radial
                                              15 is rim diameter


                                              { [section width] x [aspect ratio (as a decimal)] } x 2 = height of sidewalls in mm's
                                              height of sidewalls in mm's/25.4 = height of sidewalls in inches
                                              height of sidewalls in inches + rim diameter = OD


                                              [195mm x 0.65] x2 = 126.75mm x 2 =  253.50mm
                                              253.50mm / 25.4 =  9.98in
                                              9.98in + 15in = 24.98in

                                              195/65R15= 24.98in overall diameter


                                              willtheyfit does all the calculations for you
                                              Last Edit: April 14, 2016, 11:05 AM by DonR
                                              [Sep 19 13:42:06] alexatwork21:I just want to rub butter on my body and dance the night away. Probably drink, maybe jack off a donkey. I just want to get lost in the moment.

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                                                April 14, 2016, 01:27 PM #23

                                                themikewoo Offline

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                                                Cool but what is this 3% rule of thumb and how do I calculate that?

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                                                  April 14, 2016, 04:41 PM #24

                                                  barrett Offline

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                                                  It's the speedometer error in the attachment. It's the percentage difference in the overall tire diameter/circumference.
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                                                    General Tire info & FAQ's
                                                    « Reply #24 on: April 14, 2016, 04:41 PM »